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Monday, Nov 24th, 2014

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Undermining South Sudanese expertises is Ironical!

By Peter Gai Manyuon

September 19, 2014 (SSNA) -- The recent order from the Ministry of Labor and Public Service in the Republic of South Sudan that was issued on 16th of September 2014 is absolute enough, appropriate and welcoming by the entire South Sudanese globally unless those who lack intellectual dynamism in them can disputes the Ministerial order.

Comprehensively, South Sudan as the Newest Nation in Africa has become an employment ground for all the people who came from Asia, Europe, America, India and different African Countries for the last Ten years. Most of the professionals South Sudanese who studied abroad have been pushed out from jobs due to what some people called lack of professionalism within nationals, which is not appropriate.

Hence, the ideology of under-estimating the literacy among the South Sudanese who have studied in different parts of the World is an abuse/insult of the citizen rights and obligation in the newest nation.

Absolutely, since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that was signed on the 9th of January 2005, there have been a good numbers of foreigners who have dominated jobs opportunities in the Southern Sudan by then and subsequently until the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan which was declare on the 9th of July 2011.

Sixty percent (60%) of the employees in the new Republic are foreigners who claimed of having skills in different disciplines. Where will you find in the whole world the number of foreigners is beyond the nationals in workplace? Is South Sudan a country of global people or for South Sudanese who have suffered for twenty one years during civil war? Realistically, did Uganda, Kenya and other part of the world help in contributing human beings to fight dictatorial regime of the North Sudan during the civil war? Is it wrong if South Sudanese Nationals are considers first at the jobs opportunities in South Sudan? Is South Sudan a Country for all East African Community or a Country which has inhabitants?

However, the number of expatriates that came to South Sudan after Independence have increased greatly due to what the World Bank estimate in their research where they mentioned the number of South Sudanese who when to school as 27% which I can term as vogues and exploitation policy of research.

Truly speaking, in South Sudan there are numerous South Sudanese citizens who always graduate yearly in different parts of the World including East Africa like Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and the world at large. The numbers of graduates are thousands and thousands compare to 2005 when the Peace deal was signed. Who are you to says, South Sudanese are not experts in Education system globally?   Are your senses functioning really?

Are those who are under-estimating informs upstairs about the progress of South Sudanese as per education system is concern yearly?

Moreover, this issue of saying most of South Sudanese are illiterate is one way of exploiting and this is the right time for South Sudanese to disapprove claims from those who want to still resources indirectly.

Besides, the numbers of Professors, Doctors in different disciplines in the Republic of South Sudan are beyond other countries that got Independence some years back. If you want financial Analysts, Computer wizards, Journalists, Public Relation Officers, Political Analysts, Legal Experts, Engineers and different categories of experts, the newest nation have got good percentage.

I have one hundred percent (100%) agree with the order, those who have not carry out proper research about the people who have gone to school in South Sudan should take it from me, enough is enough. Some organizations like World Bank estimate the percent in their interest. Who told you the literate South Sudanese are 27%.  Well, interpretation is always full of Assumptions.

More interestingly, in South Sudan, you find a hotel is managed from the top to cleaners by Foreigners, Banks as well like Equity, Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB), Stanbic Bank and many more….are being run by foreigners who call themselves experts.

And on other hand, most of International Organizations are for foreigners in South Sudan. Is South Sudan for Kenyans, Ugandans, Ethiopians, and different categories from globe?

Keys points to notes

One of the remarkable points to note is the issue of taxes increment in all part of work place  can force the foreigners from working in South Sudan, if imposes on them highly. South Sudan government should come out with the new policy to charges all foreigners with high taxes so that they leave the newest nation quickly.

Restriction of giving Visas in Diplomatic Embassies can as well reduced number of foreigners working in South Sudan.  Government can reduce numbers of foreigners entering South Sudan by giving instructions to the diplomatic offices to screen and increase the visas fees to 300 dollars and as well the work permits need revision.

The Author is an Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan. He can be contact on www.independentjournalistpgm.wordpress.com or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Will the Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development Order to Replace Aliens with National Employees be implemented?

By Juma Mabor Marial

September 17, 2014 (SSNA) -- This question is very easy for the Minster of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development to answer because it is apparent that no government minister could issue orders and fail to follow up on them. Nonetheless, as a citizen of this country and very familiar with the way things have been happening, I am a bit skeptical of how this question can be answered adequately. However, before I could attempt to give any answer to such question, I wish to give my readers a brief background of what I intends to share with them on this particular issue.

Over the past few days, international, regional and national airwaves have been hit by the news that the government of the Republic of South Sudan and particularly its ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development has issued orders to all government institutions, NGOS, private sector, commercials banks and private companies to sack some aliens employed in their institutions and such vacated positions be given to south Sudanese citizens. The ministry has given all concerned institutions one month up to mid October 2014 to implement this order. What impressed jobless south Sudanese most is the articulation and clarification made by the Undersecretary of the ministry of Labour and public service when she said among other things that, during the war, foreigners were the ones occupying most of the jobs in south Sudan because some educated citizens were at the battle fields while the rest were overseas and now that the country is three years old, the citizens have come back and should be given the opportunity for employment. The customary blanket excuse that south Sudanese do not have required skills and knowledge has been rubbished by the undersecretary which makes things easier for me not to delve further in counteracting that argument.

Although the citizens of south Sudan both employed and unemployed have applause the idea by the ministry, there are enormous challenges that are associated with this order including but not limited to the misinterpretation of the order by the foreign and neighboring countries, yesterday, I got a phone call from Kenya enquiring that the government of south Sudan has been said to have given all the Kenyans in south Sudan up to October to leave the country and this, the caller said is what they heard on Kenyan televisions and read in their newspapers, even if I am not a ministry of Labour spokesperson, I felt obliged to answer and give clarifications in my capacity as a citizen of south Sudan to this caller that, the order was not about chasing the Kenyans or foreigners away from south Sudan but it was about the foreigners that occupies jobs for the local citizens. The caller was convinced and satisfied with the answer but what I do not know now is whether this one Kenyan I have talked to will be able to convince and clarify to all the 40 million plus Kenyans that have heard in their national televisions and newspapers that south Sudan has not given their citizens less than three weeks to leave the country.
Having been to Kenya for several years myself, I have been a victim of prejudice of the Kenyan media when things would happen back here and they are reported subjectively on the other side, my Embassy in Kenya then was nowhere to protect me and other vulnerable south Sudanese from abuses by the Kenyan citizens, I don’t know if things have changed now.

In Kenya and I think also in Uganda, any little mistake that happened in south Sudan is amplified and it is immediately taken out against the south Sudanese citizens in their countries, the funny thing is that, even the Kenyans and Ugandans who are in this country and benefiting greatly get worse and fail to convince their colleagues that south Sudan and the people of south Sudan are not what they say they are in reality, instead, those Kenyans and Ugandans who stays here report negatively about south Sudan and I can confirm this when in December 2013, the crisis broke out in south Sudan and the Kenyan government evacuated its citizens, upon their arrival in Kenya, the Kenyans who were in south Sudan gave some unbelievable reports that they were raped, killed and their money taken  and this was on the national televisions and all the newspapers, the irony in these stories was, the people who were giving account of what happened to them in south Sudan including being killed were the ones talking and one wonders, how would a dead person resurrect and give account of how s/he was killed. Funny enough again, some of these stupid Kenyans came back to south Sudan even before the south Sudanese themselves and before the first cease fire was signed and this tells you that, maybe, because Kenyans and Ugandans are very selfish people, they didn’t want their other colleagues to come to south Sudan and get the business opportunities that the few of them are monopolizing. I don’t have anything personal against Kenyans or Ugandans in this particular case but I am just trying to give some few examples of the hypocrisy that the foreigners have about this country although they are the real beneficiaries as most of them are employed in the private sector, NGOS, government institutions and commercial banks.

Now is the time when the real screening should be done, just like the ministry of Labour has realized, there is no reason why 99.9% of the employees should be foreigners whether in the NGOs, Private sector, private companies, commercials banks or hotels. This has been the trend since independence and it is unfortunate that this decision has come a little too late as these foreigners have already milked the country dry of the resources that are not rightfully theirs, for instance, in the commercial banks here in south Sudan, you would realize that apart from having employed all foreigners, these foreigners have come up with a very witty policy of running this country dry of its resources by allowing their citizens to transfer their money from account here to account in Kenya or Uganda and south Sudanese are denied these services. The few south Sudanese employed at such banks are being intimidated and threatened with losing their jobs if they raise any alarm as most of them are junior staffs.

It is also in these commercial banks that the foreigners instead of giving hard currencies allocated to them by this country’s central bank to all their customers, they only allocate them to their citizens who instead of travelling outside or sending them to their families takes it back to black market and bring the money back to their colleagues to be transfer to their home countries and this routine continuous while the ordinary south Sudanese who should rightfully get these services are suffering, the same activities are what are happening in the private sector and NGOS where the human resource managers are foreigners as they take advantage of their positions and invite their colleagues from their countries and employ them in positions where south Sudanese are supposed to be employed. This is the reason why, in almost every company, commercial banks, NGOs where foreigners are, you would find that from the executive director to the receptionist or even a cook, all of them are foreigners. So, the ministry of Labour having seen these cheating and illegal businesses was justified in issuing such order in order to salvage the country from sliding into a xenophobic condition because the opinions in the streets against foreigners from the citizens of this country are not something that someone would wish to linger for too long.

Ok, having said all these justifications, is the order implementable? The question is hard, why, because, as reported in the Voice of America Radio this morning, this is not the first time such order has been issued, the previous ministers of Labour have issued such orders before but it wasn’t implemented because, these sectors that employs foreigners have vested interests in each and every alien that they employ, some of these foreigners are either their business associates, their, In Laws, their friends or their wives and husbands, yes, one can employ his/her wife in these sectors if they have acquired south Sudanese nationality by naturalization but the question is, do all these foreign wives and husbands working in our government institutions have such documents? I don’t know.

Another thing is that, all these aliens working in commercial banks, private sector, private companies and NGOS and dealing in unscrupulous businesses are working in cohorts with the mighty in this country and therefore they are so connected to the extent that, ordinary citizens have been rendered voiceless and useless to raise any concerns even when things goes wrong in their watch. The foreigners in the commercial banks in particular are very much protected as they help in facilitating the illegal activities of these big people in the issues that I have highlighted above.

Nevertheless, it is good that, the successive ministers in the ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development have continuously realize that unemployment is what this country is struggling with and as such, they are one after another diagnosing that employment of aliens in the above mentioned sectors is the reason why south Sudanese do not get jobs and therefore a solution has to be found although there are too many roadblocks ahead. In that case, I wish to assist the ministry by suggesting the following recommendations:

The ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development should give this order to all the targeted sectors and attached to it, a circular for such sectors to form committees to study files and recruitment of the staff in each sector with priority on non-nationals to be first eliminated. The ministry of telecommunication has led in this area and I applause the minister for that initiative.

The ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development should form its own oversight committee to also go after all these sectors and make their own screening to ensure that no stones are left unturned in those sectors that people want to continue maintaining the status quo.

Just like the minister of telecommunication said, screening and reviewing the files of the staff should not only be to remove foreigners, but it should also be to check the performance of each staff and give recommendations for their promotions or otherwise, because, here, sacking aliens does not mean employing illiterate south Sudanese.

In keeping in touch with our neighbours and other countries of the world, the ministry should ensure that, a copy of this order is copied to all our embassies abroad and the ambassadors should be ask to share this information with the host countries such that it is not misinterpreted to mean that south Sudan does not want foreigners in the country, my fear is that, if this information is not corrected, our citizens in the other countries will be abused and mistreated particularly in Kenya and Uganda because I have experiences in how the media from these countries and their citizens takes something from south Sudan in a subjective and wholesale manner.

The ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development should if it goes through this order ensure that, capacity building and on-job training of the civil servants is given a priority in all sectors such that in the next few years, south Sudan should not be a laughing stock to foreigners who think that they are here because south Sudanese do not have the required skills and knowledge to be employed in managerial and administrative positions.

The ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development in collaboration with the ministry of justice, ministry of commerce, trade and investment should ensure that all licenses for those commercial banks, private companies, NGOS are withdrawn if they fail to cooperate and implement the orders.

In conclusion, I appreciate the decision by the minister of Labour, Public Service and human resource development for keeping with the spirit of his predecessors to open up jobs opportunities to their fellow citizens, the only difference for honourable Minister now is how he would implement this policy because its implementation has always been the problem not the issuing of orders. As for south Sudanese, it is our right and we should not be embarrassed to demand for employment from our government and ask the foreigners to leave our jobs. In every country, there are jobs that are reserved for nationals and south Sudan should not be an exception.

Finally, all sectors must collaborate and cooperate with the government and particularly the ministry of Labour, public service and human resource development in ensuring that this policy is implemented because lack of employment opportunities for south Sudanese youth has tremendous impacts on the economic, security and general development of this country.

Juma Mabor Marial is a Trainee Advocate based in Juba, reachable at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

SPLM Former Political Detainees and Members of the Civil Society Should not participate in the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGONU)

By Juma Mabor Marial

September 15, 2014 (SSNA) -- As peace talks in Addis Ababa resumes today Monday, September 15, 2013, the attention will be drawn to transitional arrangement with formation of the transitional government of national unity topping the agenda and as already is the case, the IGAD intention is to form an all-inclusive and a broad based government that would include the two warring parties, other political parties, other stakeholders and of course, the SPLM Leaders Former Political Detainees (LFPD), the intention here is to ensure that inclusivity means collective involvement and responsibility by all the south Sudanese stakeholders to implement the reform agenda that would be framed in order to circumvent future crisis.

This proposal is too noble to be censured and this is why so far, the peace talks in Addis Ababa have been carried out through a multi-stakeholder style so that those who would later participate in the transitional government are furnished with necessary understanding and talents over the issues that need to be addressed during the transitional period which is in all its design and spirit the best way of doing things. Now here comes the question of eligibility of who and who is not suitable to participate in the transitional government of national unity? The answers can emanate from any of us based on the perspectives and rationale as to why one thinks this or that other group has the right to participate in the TGONU but having the benefit and privilege to share these ideas with my readers, I would lead in giving my would not be so friendly answers and see how each of the citizen that comes across these views buy the idea.

For me, the intention of IGAD to include all the stakeholders in the transitional government arrangement is a brilliant and comfortable idea because, national affairs have to be collectively addressed with stewardship of all members of the society and it is because of this reason that I am buying the idea of all, except SPLM Leaders former political detainees and members of the Civil Society participating in the transitional government of national unity (TGONU). I have therefore in my opinion, accepted that, both the warring parties i.e. the government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) and SPLM/A in the opposition must participate in the government of national unity on equal percentage no matter how small, the political parties must also participate in the TGONU, the youth, disables and women must be represented in the TGONU, But, the SPLM leaders former political detainees and the members of the civil society should not participate in the transitional government of national unity, why? Here comes the reason, one, I object to the participation of the SPLM former detainees in the TGONU because of the personal analysis of the status of these so-called former political detainees and my case against these guys are comprehensive in a way that if I were to give lengthy details about the short comings of each one of them, some of them would take it personal and I wouldn’t want national issues to take that trend as my intention has always been to contribute to the welfare of this country without any baggage of personal grudge.  That said, the reason why I wouldn’t want the former political detainees to participate in the forthcoming government are simple.

First, these people are of course veteran soldiers turned politicians and their contribution have made great positive  impacts in this country including the achievement of independence, they are as well the contemporary politicians that this country has and their participation in the country’s affairs cannot be easily downgraded, it is by virtue of their contribution to the freedom struggle that successively enabled them to form part of the government both in the government of national unity in Khartoum and government of southern Sudan since the inception of the comprehensive peace agreement in 2005, but it is also because of their consistent salvage in the government that has enabled them showed their true colours to the people of south Sudan by looting the meager resources from the people of south Sudan and establish their empires here and abroad, the former detainees if I am not wrong and with the exception of the one former governor that is with them were among the 75 government officials that were alleged to have squandered 400 million dollars from the citizens of south Sudan, other corruption scandals like the most recent Fire Safe Scandal were perpetuated by and had benefited some with them now, the cases of corruption are just a tip of an iceberg. The other case I have against these former political detainees is their role in the on-going crisis, when they were arrested here in Juba and some of them charged with treason, the sentiments in the streets of Juba as to their fate varied from one group of citizens to another, some said they were guilty as charged, others said they were innocent, others said they should be killed while others felt they should be castrated for having looted the country and lit the fire to kill the innocent civilians while they had hide their families far away in foreign countries. some of us who went to schools and learnt the rules of analysis said everything should be left to law to take it own course and we also added personal views that these are our brothers who had sacrificed their lives to bring this country to where it is today and therefore castrating, killing or even convicting them should be replaced with their release and forgiveness, our voices, although at the minority ultimately took precedent over all other wild voices and the guys were four after seven, released but little did we knew that their number would turned into a political party ( G11) or famously known now (SPLM leaders former political detainees).

The now SPLM/A in the opposition plus the members of international community where these guys had connections also gave the government sleepless nights by pressurizing it to release the detainees. Unlike south Sudanese (some of us) who had wanted these guys released because of their past good deeds, members of the international community who wanted the guys released thought that the arrest was not because of the alleged attempted coup but was entirely an attempt by the government to slab democracy and therefore, their detention was a straight forward case of war against democracy in Africa, the SPLM/A in opposition on the other hand were of the view that their comrades were put behind bars by a dictatorial government and considering them heavyweights in their opinion, the detained leaders have to be released as a precondition to start peace talks since their present on their side would add both national and international backing to their claim.

Although with lesser hope of being good old friends again, the government had also thought that by releasing these guys, it would groove two or even three important points, one, it would bargain the international community to it side that, yes, I can listen  and therefore, I have to be applaud for being a good listener, two, I can morsel and therefore, anybody who thinks they can do anything and abscond will not do it unless I have consented, this was particularly to the detainees and thirdly, the government had hoped that, these guys would be more appreciative and ask the government to allow them back to its side after they have been missed by a whisker. All these hopes and desires whether from the citizens like us who had thought after their release, the guys would be remorseful to the people of south Sudan and ask for forgiveness and be good boys, the international community which had thought after their release, the boys would be the champions of democracy in the country, the SPLM/A in opposition which had thought the guys would join them and make them strong through their Political constituencies in the country and international connections or even the government which had thought, the guys would come back and say thank you for forgiving us after the sins we committed against you were all wrong,  instead, the guys went out and attempt to outsmart the citizen, the international community, the SPLM/A in opposition and the government by declaring themselves a neutral group. The international community and IGAD bought into their idea because they thought this intention has been made in good faith, but the three groups, us the citizens, the SPLM/A in opposition and the government felt that, this was a first signature in the divorce papers between all of us and the so-called SPLM/A leaders former political detainees.

The reason the three groups accepted to sign these divorce papers is because, the political detainees thought they are the only gifted people in this country by first looting the country, agreeing with some in the SPLM/A in opposition to overthrow the government, remain behind after the coup failed and when arrested and released, betrayed their brothers in the opposition, failed to appreciate the government that released them and failed to show-case to the international community that advocated for their release that they are now part of the solution. They instead put themselves as the “clean people in all the crisis that have engulfed the country”. The intention here as is now realized by all the groups is that,  this people that have hurt everyone thinks  the leader of the transitional government of national unity should come out of their group. This is not my own assumption, you would all recall and agree with me that soon after their arrival in Addis Ababa for peace talks, the group convened a press conference and declared their position as being neutral and wanted to be considered as a third block in the talks, this pronouncement derailed talks for sometimes until their case was resolved and they were accepted as  third party to the peace talks, it is because of their insistent that open flood gates for multi-stakeholders style of the talks as IGAD wanted to provide a win-win situation for all south Sudanese stakeholders. Secondly, Pagan Amum out of his own desire and volatility came out with a paper that was also published in the public media outlining how he would resolve the crisis between the warring parties, his intention was quickly interpreted by some of the citizens that responded to his paper as being intended to putting himself as the interim president if and when the transitional government of national unity (TGONU) is formed.

Not only these, recently, and this is what has provoked me to share this opinion with the citizens, the SPLM leaders former political detainees published a forty three (43) page position paper, a paper that I named ‘SPLM Leaders Former Political Detainees Manifesto’ outlining or rather copy pasting the transitional constitution and other laws of south Sudan to tell people that whatever they had written is what should be done when and if the transitional government of national unity is formed. The language used there is a straight forward indicator of the fact that SPLM leaders former political detainees want to head the transitional government of national unity. Something they seem to express better in forty three (43) pages position paper than at the round table at the peace talks in Addis Ababa. The reason why some of us are convinced they want to lead the transitional government of national unity is that, throughout their statements in their forty three (43) page position paper, they have this common phrase of ‘WE’ will do this and that, when you put this paper together with that of Pagan Amum and shuttle diplomacy that they are undertaking, then you would immediately know that they are the one who want to be given the TGONU. then, the question that quickly comes to mind is, where were they for the last 10 years, of course some of them were governors, others prime ministers (cabinet affairs minister), all of them ministers, why didn’t they do all these things they think they can do now, what will be the magic to bring ‘We will do’, or was their first phase for corruption and establishing dynasties and now if given a second phase, they will do this and that for the people of south Sudan. I still haven’t gotten better answers for their “We will do” slogan and I need some help in that.

Again, recently when President Kiir and other IGAD head of states signed the protocol on transitional arrangement and Dr. Riek refused to sign the agreement, the group of eleven condemned in the strongest terms possible the unfairness of the protocol and made their grievances similar to those of the SPM/A in opposition which again, take us back to the drawing board of asking ourselves,  if they (SPLM  leaders former political detainees) have one reasoning or position with the SPLM/A in opposition, then why are they not joining hands and work together, the only impression one expected they should have made was to suggest solution on how the stalemate on the protocol would be resolved instead of repeating the same argument as put forward by the SPLM/A in opposition. Let’s finalize our argument about these guys later on in the conclusion.

Now why should the civil society not be part of the transitional government of national unity, simple again, although I know, most of the people see civil society as a gateway to politic, we have to be mindful of the future of this country, it is not strange that some few self-centered characters started as civil society activists but as soon as they are appointed to political posts, they immediately toss out the advocacy clothes and swear never to represent the voiceless, a boarder must be drawn here and now, the members of the civil society that are participating in the peace talks in Addis Ababa and those here in the country should not participate in the TGONU and this is because, the TGONU is not going to be business as usual, the politicians will head and manage it yes, but it also need a strong, independent and viable civil society to act as watchdog in the implementation of the reform agenda that shall be given to TGONU.as a blueprint. The civil society should be there to correct and supervise those who thinks looting the resources is what only replace violence, they civil society should be there to ensure that the TGONU delivers the basic services that the people of south Sudan have been denied for quite too long, the civil society should be there to ensure that all south Sudanese have the right to live and enjoy the fruits of independence of this country.

In conclusion, the SPLM leaders Former Political detainees have not captivated anybody with their tricks to come to power through the backdoor. Yes, their contribution to the freedom of this country is acknowledged, their reigns and political strength are known, their intellectuality and generational ability is also known but it is also fresh in everyone mind that, they have been in the government of this country since its inception, they have also looted enough from the citizens at the expenses of development and service delivery, they have mismanaged the affairs of this country through omission and/or commission, they have not repented and say sorry to the citizens that dies because of their political ambitions in this country,  they have failed to meet the expectations of the SPLM/A in opposition, they have disappointed the international community and they have declare useless the government that released them from prison and here they are, thinking that they know everything out of all these groups yet They have betrayed everybody that has done everything to ensure their release.

Yes, they are south Sudanese, they are still prominent politicians and they are still connected but no, they cannot be part of the transitional government of national unity because I am afraid, should they be return to the government, it will be business as usual, they will go back to their old quarters and do what they are known of doing best. These people should be left like any other ordinary citizen and let them go back to their people and ask for a fresh mandate and comes elections, they shall have the right to contest and if they wins, then, they can come back to politic. SPLM Leaders Former political detainees were supposed to bring solution to these crises but did they do that, no, they are busy scheming on how the mediators and international community should get rid of everybody and make them the caretakers of the transitional government of national unity. This is why I think, their conspiracy has now become crystal clear and therefore, they should not be allow to be part of the transitional government of national unity which is now the only hope for south Sudanese to bring long awaited and lasting reforms.

Juma Mabor Marial is a Trainee Advocate in Juba & reachable at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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