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Wednesday, Oct 01st, 2014

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Is Dr. Elia Lomuro an oriented adversary of Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan?

By: Bol Khan Rom

September 30, 2014 (SSNA) -- The present South Sudan’s Minister for Cabinet Affairs, Dr. Martin Elia Lomuro, is an arch enemy of Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan (FDRSS). He is a motivated opponent of the proposed Reforms, the reforms which shall lead our nation to permanent sustainable peace and development. Dr. Lomuro is purposely deployed to talks against proven and accepted system of governance anonymously approved by majority of South Sudanese people. Speaking to reporters at the closing session of the seventh speakers’ forum on 25 September 2014, Martin Elia Lomuro, said any move to replace the current system of government is unacceptable and must be fought up to the last man. The author read Dr. Martin’s rhetoric statement in Sudan Tribune online news web. Previously, I always do hear him, Elia, very much favors John Luk’s constitution that gave him a ministry, on purpose, in the kitchen Cabinet against the reforms if not against the betterment of the whole nation.

“Our objective in fighting this war is simple and has been clearly stated from day one and it will remain so. Our objective is to maintain the leadership and very unitary system of the current Juba’s Government. This government was democratically elected by the people of this country,” said Lomuro. Does Hon. Elia mean the business? Contrary, the John Locke’s Document Elia purposely supports, in article 4 (2), however, Refers the present Government headed by Benydit Kiir as “Constitutional Government not an elected Government” Is Hon. Minister familiar with this article? Even the drafter, John Luk, disowned it and calls it a repealed constitution.

Dr. Elia further lamented that, calls for Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan or reforms are carrying tribal agenda. If these calls for a pro-democratic reform government was motivated by a tribal or carrying tribal agenda. Then, why was it anonymously approved countrywide? I am not a member of any SPLM factions; however, I can read, hear and know which faction is struggling for public or South Sudanese people’s interests. Federalism won’t allow the struggling tribe to impose its tribal agenda, if it has any, on Eastern Equatorians or Awielians. That was why, we saw Equatorians in big numbers on the streets anonymously welcoming the proposals. Do Equatorians have tribal agenda? Do Bahr El Gahzalians who went onto streets as well have tribal agenda? Do others Upper Nileians who did the same have also tribal agenda? In Public Administration I studied, all public figures—politicians measure their popularities through political programs they have for public consumption. How the ordinary citizens react or welcome political ideologies from political parties or politicians individually. An ethnic origin of politicians is less consider. Rather political programs of each and every Leader in any country are the ones matter. Can South Sudanese people’s demand brought up by their son and Father be considered tribal? The demand for Federal Democratic and reformed Republic of South Sudan (FDRSS)! I don’t think so.

However, we are all aware that in Africa most of the groups are too venerable to say no and defend their interests. You can find such groups clandestinely and orally support reforms in hearts but soft in action against dictators that impose fatal rules. Those groups do pretend and say “We are peaceful people who choose an amicable solution to the problem”. Though, they are being killed. If the former is the case, then let the world know! Do African’s dictators forgive them—the easily entangled and scared individuals or groups? Definitely, NO! Instead, the dictators do round up helpless citizens they find and brutally tortured them to the end, so that they give up hearts supports for reforms. Do dictators agree to and implement political programs that haven’t an armed threat behind? I doubt. Whatever political programs you orally bring forward and how much words or greater orator you are, all can be nothing to dictators but finally damped underground. They have tried it in the SPLM and we subsequently saw most of them (SPLM’s Leaders) ended up in jail. As we see it now, any attempt to resist the proven popular need for reforms and for FDRSS must be a move to blocks efforts that are being sought both internationally and nationally to restore peace and feasible stability in the country.

Logically speaking, Dr. Lomuro should clearly tell the nation why resistance against reforms and FDRSS is so important to him. Otherwise, he can be seen as a person who is set to preach individual—tribal agenda himself. Instead he should be one of the leaders in negotiations forefront in Ethiopia to push for reforms. For instance, let’s take the case of hard currency being sold in black market in Juba. Can Dr. Lomuro tell me that there is no need for reform inside there, given the tribal policy installed in distributing the Dollars for black market? Imagine, in Juba market nowadays or in Central Bank premise people talk to International fiscal Organizations’ Managers in local language. Yet everybody understands what a fresh villager young boys & girls of 10 years old want. Why only members of particular South Sudanese community have 24hrs access to dollars? Neither in Arabic nor in English they communicate and sell dollars in black market. However, young people from Yambio, Kajo-keji and Kapoita for instance who could fluently communicate best with International people in English have no access at all. What is that happening there? Dr. Martin, as a powerful Minister of Cabinet Affairs, does he know this? If yes, isn’t reforms required, in this particular area also?

Therefore, I think the intention behind Lomuro’s expression isn’t of public interest, but may be of his own party interest. Or he might have been directed, who knows, to speak so! Mr. Thomas Jefferson, rightly put it “The Tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants”; unless, government officials remain genuine servants of the people. That all people were created equal “The Laws of Nature and Nature’s God” had given every person a set of rights that could not be legally alienated, and that among those rights were “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness”.

Hence, Dr. Martin Elia Lomuro should answer aforementioned question of whether or not he is a politically oriented opponent of Federal Democratic Republic of South Sudan (FDRSS). Otherwise I ask the Juba Government in which he is a Cabinet Minister, to let my people—South Sudanese people pursuit their Happiness. The Federal Democratic Peaceful Republic of South Sudan!!

The author is a South Sudanese commentator; he is on This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

IGAD, South Sudan needs Kiir to be a Ceremonial President!

By: Sirir Gabriel Yiei Rut

September 29, 2014 (SSNA) -- Our present constitutional dispensation in South Sudan is that of an Executive Monarch or a powerful president which is modelled on that of the USA. The presidential system of government in South Sudan, USA, Kenya, Nigeria and other countries is a winner-takes-all system which often leaves inadequate room for checks and balances. This model leads to a monosepalous (one head) system where the head of state is also the head of the executive arm of government and this leads to over-concentration of power in the hands of one person.

If we want true democracy and proper corporate governance, then there should be separation of powers, division of labor and decongestion of authority. It has been seen over the years that the presidential system can lead to dictatorship and misgovernance. Some Months ago, the illegitimate president Salva Kiir Mayardit, made a statement that left to him that he is going to remain as president for life.

The president should become a ceremonial head like the Ethiopian president so that the executive arm of government is headed by a Prime Minister who, with his cabinet, will be collectively accountable to parliament and army chief too.

This is the bicephalous (two headed) system or cabinet system which Ghana had in the second republic from 1969 to 1972, with the late Justice Edward Akuffo Addo as Their first ceremonial president and the late Dr K.A.Busia as prime minister. In India, Germany, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, they practice the bicephalous (two-headed) system.

This system brings about division of labour, checks and balances and it promotes continuity in government. Most often, the candidate for the ceremonial head or president is a retired professional or academic who is apolitical or neutral and who is acceptable to all political parties as a father figure and conciliator. Such a figure is a patriarch, statesman and well respected individual. Here, we might think of people in South Sudan who fit this bill as Prof. Peter .A. Nyaba, Sir Joseph Lago, Mr. Abel Alier, Justice Caan Reec Madut, Prof. Moses Machar Kachuol, Ismail Konyi, Prof. Dechand, Dr Ann Itt'o, among many others.

Under the bicephalous system, we can tap or head-hunt professionals with proven track record to assume office of ceremonial president. Such a system will be suitable for an advanced democracy but then South Sudan can amend its current constitution to go back to the cabinet system of our former colonial master, Britain. South Sudan, being a small country, does not need a presidential or monosepalous system which often leads to looting and abuse of power.

Our current experience from 15th Dec-2013 to date informs us that we need to change direction from a presidential system to a cabinet system. The presidential system encourages the ‘spoils system’, cronyism and appointment of incompetent people to populate the corridors of power. It also leads to a lot of insider-trading, corruption and awards of contracts to shady contractors. It may also tend to be more expensive (in terms of corruption) than the cabinet system.

The beauty of the Cabinet System is that the ceremonial President has no powers to reject the cabinet of the Prime Minister and to call for the dissolution of parliament through a vote of no confidence in the cabinet. The polls or general election results are based on simple majority or first-past-the-past and sometimes it leads to greater inclusivity and participation because of coalitions.

The cabinet system brings closer working collaboration between the executive arm and the legislature, as opposed to the current scenario where the executive under the monosepalous presidential system, can bulldoze its way through parliament to enact laws and sign treaties, where the ruling party has the majority in parliament. The presidential prerogative and veto power can also be abused. Of course, some critics may argue against the cabinet system that it suits a highly literate country like Britain. But then who says South Sudanese are not getting literate and sophisticated in their tastes? The collective responsibility of the cabinet system can make ministers work extra hard to avoid a vote of no confidence and it may reduce incidence of corruption, because parliament will be as equally powerful as the executive to call the shots and the judiciary will be neutral to interpret the laws and give judicial reviews.

The cabinet system will impose more discipline on government functionaries as the shadow cabinet or government-in-waiting will be more visible and recognized in parliament than under the winner-takes-all juggernaut presidential system. We should design our political system to suit our bill and suit our national character, without necessarily copying blindly from outside.

It is important to note that for the cabinet system to be stable, the military should be highly professionalized so that they do not cause disruptions in the system of governance. Can we say that our current civil/public services and defense forces as currently constituted, are professional?

Some intellectuals may argue that the cabinet system often leads to conflicts between the ceremonial head and the PM, between the executive and legislature, between insiders and outsiders etc. But then who says constructive conflict is bad? After all, conflict is part of everyday life and we cannot eliminate it in our political life. Conflict may lead to positive changes, encourage transparency and lead to proper husbandry and stewardship of our scarce national resources. It is only dictators, despots, tyrants and non-democrats who defy to be challenged.

I think it is high time we did away with our despotic executive monarch/presidential system, and I concur with ex-vice president Dr. Riek Machar’s call for reform. Our incumbent president, Salva Kiir Mayardit should be commended for his timely action in setting up a constitutional reform committee and I hope they will look closely into the amoral aspect of the presidential system.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I propose that South Sudan should adopt the cabinet system so that the opposition leader will not be kept on the sidelines and excluded from participation in national policy formulation. Under the current presidential dispensation in South Sudan, the Opposition party leaders are nearly excluded from the legislature and marginalized for 9 months, during which time hibernating in the cooler, they might be tempted to issue unparliamentarily statements such as ‘all die be die’ and boom statements. It is indeed frustrating to be sitting on the sidelines without being involved.

I think our national planners in South Sudan have an onerous duty to examine the pros and cons of both the presidential and cabinet systems of governance. We cannot forget here the French writer, Montesquieu, who more than 200 years ago advocated for separation of powers in his book, The Spirit of the Law. Hope a ceremonial president will not become a couch potato! (Laughter).

Sirir Gabriel Yiei Rut is the Acting Chairman of SPLM-Youth League in Egypt-Cairo This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Analysis on Genesis of Lakes State Crisis in South Sudan (part 1)

By Peter Gai Manyuon

September 29, 2014 (SSNA) -- Lakes State Comprises of eight Counties and most of them are for Dinka tribes but different sub-clans perceptions are too different with each others in the state. There has been cattle raiding, revenge killings in various parts of State. Lakes state is where most cycle of revenge and cattle raiding remain since CPA was signed in 2005 between Republic of Sudan and the former rebel the Sudan People Liberation Army /Movement (SPLA/M) which was lead at first by Late Dr John Garang De Mabior before he crashed in a terrible accident that need proper investigation in the nearer future.

The genesis of crisis of lakes state is within the politicians who adopted the new civilization of divide and rule policy, which comprises of corruption, hatred and sectarianism among the people. Many senior politicians in Lakes state have nothing to do but their main aim is to dismantle the unity of the communities in the state and as well participating in confusing the community to acts negatively by inciting communal violence that has so far reduced the State population.

The ideology of hatred was introduced due to too much poverty and illiteracy in most of the African Countries where South Sudan is number one and Lakes State, have taken the lead in committing crimes that will one day take most of the politicians of Lakes to jail one day one time.

Hence, the ongoing crimes being committed by the government of South Sudan on the Lakes state Communities population has taken the image of the Republic of South Sudan to be level as the failed state in the world context. Everyone knows that, Lakes State comprises of different categories of sub-clans within the Dinka tribe and their language and culture is the same but they are having different ideological problems that emanated from the ancestors, crocks politicians and the incumbent Military Governor who is imposing illiterate ideas to the entire masses and people are not willing to work with him in the state.

Besides, Lakes state problem became worse and worse beginning from the time of John Lat who was the Governor of Lakes after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in Naivasha Kenya in 2005. John Lat was former Chief of Military Intelligence as well participated in confusion of the community by that time. As times goes on and on, John Lat was removed and the former Deputy Speaker Comrade Daniel Awet Akot was appointed as the Caretaker Governor of the State before the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan in 2011.

Many people know that Awet Akot was a tribal leader in South Sudan context. When he (Wet) was in Rumbek as the Governor, problems came to exists in different kind of levels within the State government; sub clans and the entire State become volatile. There was killings that emerged from (Gok of Chueibet, Agaar of Rumbek and subsequently Atut of Yirol) respectively during the regime of Comrade Daniel. After he (Awet) was sacks from the position he was elected as the Deputy Speaker of the National Legislative Assembly where he deputized James Wani Igga the South Sudanese Comedian and the current Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan. More so, during the time of Wani and Awet in the National Parliament, nothing moves well for the last eight years but what they achieved was serious scandals of resources in the Parliament and preaching about hatred within the Assembly. I witnessed in one of the session in the Assembly when I was a Senior Reporter of the Citizen Television (CTV) in 2012 before I resigned to go for further studies.

In reality ,everyone is aware that the former Deputy Speaker of South Sudan’s parliament, the National Legislative Assembly and Chairman of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in Lakes State is among the people behind the crisis of the Lakes State Communities. His lack of good public Relations caused hatred among the same community of Dinka in Lakes up to date. People of Lakes state cannot fight among themselves if there is no root causes of the genesis of the scene. The problem is within the opinion leaders of the Lakes State especially the paramount Chiefs, politicians, senior officers within the Sudan People Liberation Army and the President of the Republic of South Sudan for bringing in illiterate and dictator to the people of the state. How can illiterate leader bring peaceful co-existence in the society?

Briefly, Daniel Awet Akot, famously failed in his attempt to be the SPLM’s candidate for Governor of Lakes state in the 2010 general elections, he was defeated due to his tribal agenda and hatred he exerted/ imposed on the community.

Awet’s opponents claim that he was behind the decision of South Sudan’s president Salva Kiir to remove the elected Governor of Lakes state, Chol Tong Mayay, in January 2013 which to me is absolute and a factual.

By then people where asking themselves whether the problem of Lakes state was the issue of Awet Akot being the governor or it is the gene within the people of State that caused hatred among the clans and Communities. Some people justify up to now that, the serious violation of human rights that are going on in Lakes state is the influence of Daniel Awet, John Lat, Marial Benjamin, Mayom Akech, Telar Ring Deng and the current Military Governor Matur.

Lakes state’s democratically elected Governor Chol Tong Mayay was removed from power by President Salva Kiir under his constitutional powers that allow him to replace governors for reasons of national and internal security.

An election should have been held within three months, according to South Sudan’s transitional constitution but no elections are planned until the 2015 general elections but nothing was implemented and up to date there is mess, revenge killings going on in the state and the reason is that, most of the Community of Lakes want Engineer Chol Toang Mayay back in to leadership. But am not sure whether miracle can happen for re-appointment of Chol Toang or not?

Absolutely, Lakes state problem is being designed by crocks of politicians who lack what to do in the Republic of South Sudan rather they are advocating for revenge killings and preaching politics of hatred among the same communities.

To be continue....................

The author is Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on the issues of Democratization and Human Rights in South Sudan, he can be contact on www.independentjournalistpgm.wordpress.com or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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